Nuts have internal machine threads, for use with machine thread bolts and screws.
A standard six sided nut.
A low carbon steel for general use. Chrome plated and polished for a mirror like finish.
A hex nut with a nylon ring to resist loosening.
A nut with a finished top that covers the end of the bolt. Bolts must be in the proper length.
A high crown type of cap nut used for appearance. Bolts must be in the proper length.
USS pattern is the most common type of flat washer.
SAE pattern is a tighter fit on the bolt and a smaller outside diameter.