Socket screws have an allen wrench drive.
Socket caps have a small cylindrical head with tall vertical sides. Allen (hex socket) drive is a six-sided recess for use with an Allen wrench (hex key).
Flat heads are countersunk (cone shaped under the head) with a flat top. Allen (hex socket) drive is a six-sided recess for use with an Allen wrench (hex key).
Screws with no head and machine threads for use in a tapped hole.
Screws with an unthreaded shoulder that is larger in diameter than the threads. Also known as stripper bolts.
Connector bolts have a flat head that sits flush with the surface of the wood, creating a neat finish. Commonly paired with a connector cap or a barrel nut in furniture applications.
Screws with an Allen wrench drive.